Plant Operation

India / Kakrapar-3 Indigenous PHWR Begins Operation At 100% Capacity

By David Dalton
5 September 2023

Government has confirmed plans to build at least 10 more nuclear plants

Kakrapar-3 Indigenous PHWR Begins Operation At 100% Capacity
File photo of construction of Kakrapar-3 and -4 in Gujarat state, western India.

India’s first indigenous 700 MW pressurised heavy water reactor unit (PHWR) has begun operation at full capacity, press reports said, quoting officials at state-run Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL).

Kakrapar-3, in Gujarat state, western India, began commercial operations in June, but had been operating at 90% of its capacity until now, the reports said.

The plant, owned and operated by NPCIL, was connected to the grid in January 2021. Construction began in 2010.

Commercial operation was delayed partly because of modifications and improvements that were needed based on commissioning feedback.

There are two older PHWRs in commercial operation at Kakrapar. Both units, Kakrapar-1 and -2 are 202-MW plants that began operation in the 1990s.

The indigenous 700-MW PHWR was designed by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre near Mumbai from earlier Candu 220 MW and 540 MW designs from Canada.

India, which relies on coal for about 48% of its energy generation, has 19 nuclear power plants in commercial operation and eight under construction – one PHWR at Kakrapar-4, four Russia supplied pressurised water reactors at Kudankulam, two PHWRs at Rajasthan and a prototype fast breeder reactor at the Madras nuclear site.

According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, the reactor fleet provides about 3.1% of the country’s electricity generation.

In December the government confirmed plans to build at least 10 more nuclear power plants to increase the production of clean energy.

The 10 plants are Kaiga-5 and Kaiga-6 in Karnataka state, Mahi Banswara 1-4 in Rajasthan state Gorakhpur-3 and -4 in Haryana state, and Chutka-1 and -2 in Madhya Pradesh state.

The government has already said nuclear capacity is expected to reach 22,480 MW by 2031, up from today’s figure of about 6,290 MW (net). The government did not say if its projected 22,480 MW figure was net or gross, but either way it would represent a significant threefold increase.

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