Kalinin’s chief engineer, Alexander Dorofeev, said the work is directly related to improving the safety and stability of the 950-MW VVER unit, which began commercial operation in June 1985.
The plant has been cleared by nuclear regulator Rostekhnadzor to operate until 2025, but the modernisation could see that being extended to 2044.
There are four 1,000-MW units of the VVER type in commercial operation at Kalinin. Kalinin-2 began commercial operation in 1987 and Kalinin-3 and -4 in 2005 and 2012.
Kalinin-4 recently underwent a series of upgrades to improve its operational safety at increased power levels.
In June 2018, Kalinin-3 received a permission to operate at 104% of its design capacity.
According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, Russia has 36 nuclear power units in commercial operation and six under construction. The fleet provides about 17.9% of the country’s electricity.